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Christopher Richardson
Christopher Richardson

Rabid Dog LINK

In June, a police officer shot a collie dog with rabies. Within a month, the police officer shot three more suspected rabid dogs found within five blocks of the original dog. Three months later, rabies was diagnosed in a horse by a Pasadena veterinarian. A muzzling ordinance was passed the same month by the board of health.

Rabid Dog

Some people denied that rabies existed. Strong opposition by a few dog lovers, the humane animal officer, and some members of the board of health resulted in repeal of the ordinance the following week. With the repeal of the muzzle ordinance, rabies spread rapidly in Los Angeles. Numerous rabid dogs were reported in various locations within the city. Four horses and a mule died of rabies.

In the spring, a 57-year-old man saw a dog attack a group of school children, rushing over, he grabbed the rabid dog and was bitten several times, he held it until police arrived. He later died of rabies. In the fall, an Altadena veterinarian died of rabies.

Bites from a wild infected animal cause most U.S. rabies cases. Raccoons are the most common carriers, but bats are most likely to infect people. Skunks and foxes also can be infected, and a few cases have been reported in wolves, coyotes, bobcats, and ferrets. Small rodents such as hamsters, squirrels, chipmunks, mice, and rabbits are rarely infected. Widespread animal vaccination has made transmission from dogs to people rare in the U.S. In the rest of the world, exposure to rabid dogs is the most common cause of transmission to humans.

Rabies (Lyssavirus) is an infectious disease that affects the central nervous system in mammals. It's transmitted through the saliva a few days before death when the animal "sheds" the virus. Rabies is not transmitted through the blood, urine or feces of an infected animal, nor is it spread airborne through the open environment. Because it affects the nervous system, most rabid animals behave abnormally.

On January 4, 2019 an eight-year-old girl child was bitten by a suspected rabid dog over the left parotid region. After a 17-h delay, the child was brought for rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) at Civil Hospital Theog and was administered complete PEP. On January 29, 2019, the child was again brought to Theog Hospital with complaints of having fever, difficulty in walking, neck drop, and ptosis. On examination, pediatrician found photophobia, phonophobia, and hydrophobia and subsequently the patient died of cardiac arrest. On postmortem examination, the facial nerve was found dissected and injured at the inner end of the parotid gland. A severed end toward the brain was swollen and edematous. The entire brain was extracted and sent to Central Research Institute Kasauli for confirmation of rabies, where it tested positive for rabies by Fluorescent Antibodies Test and Biological Test. In situations where sensitive parts such as the face are involved, a thorough wound wash with soap and water and application of antiseptics along with immediate PEP may save some lives by not allowing the virus enough time to attach to and infect the nerve cells.

Rabies virus (RABV) is transmitted through direct contact (such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in your eyes, nose, or mouth) with saliva or brain/nervous system tissue from an infected animal. Rabies is fatal but preventable. It can spread to people and pets if they are bitten or scratched by a rabid animal.

If you find yourself in the path of a dog that appears to be rabid, you should do everything in your power to avoid coming into contact with the animal. Never try to approach a dog that is acting strangely or seems aggressive. If the dog appears to be moving in your direction, try to put a solid object between yourself and the creature. Back away slowly, as a dog may chase you if you run, and a dog can outrun you. As soon as you are safe, call the authorities to report the animal and prevent it from biting anyone in the future.

Rabies is a vicious killer, a virus transmitted through saliva. Any warm-blooded mammal is susceptible. Dogs can become infected through a bite by a rabid wild animal or fellow canine; in turn, a bite from an infected dog is the most common method of human infection.

French scientist Louis Pasteur formulated the first vaccine in 1885 by injecting the rabies virus into rabbits, killing them, then drying the nerve tissues to weaken the virus. When he injected this into a nine-year-old boy bitten by a rabid dog, the child did not develop the disease.

Most rabies cases in the U.S. occur in wild animals, such as raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes. In New York, animal rabies occurs primarily in raccoons, bats and skunks. Raccoons are the most commonly reported rabid animal in NYC. Animal rabies surveillance in NYC began in 1992. Since then, more than 600 animals have tested positive for rabies in the city, the majority of which are raccoons.

All dogs and cats in NYC are required to have up-to-date vaccinations against rabies. Even indoor dogs and cats are at risk if they escape outside, or if a rabid bat enters your home. Puppies and kittens should get their first rabies shot by 4 months of age. Revaccination is required no later than one year after the primary vaccination. Revaccinations must be administered at intervals thereafter.

Any dog or cat that may have been exposed to a rabid animal should be reported to the Health Department. The department will work with the pet owner and their veterinarian to determine appropriate follow up.

The number of rabid domestic animals (the most common vector of human rabies in the 20th century in the United States as well as most other parts of the world) has also decreased. The number of PEP courses -- the direct cost of which is approximately $2,500 per fully treated patient -- has increased without any decrease in the number of human rabies cases [2, 4, 5]. Thus, PEP is often administered under inappropriate circumstances [6, 7]. Health practitioners lack information allowing them to estimate the risk of rabies, complicating decisions on how to proceed when dealing with various low-risk rabies encounters, such as non-bites [8].

Potential participants received an introductory questionnaire by email that requested information regarding the duration and type of experience they have had in recommending rabies PEP. The email clearly indicated that participation in the study was purely voluntary. After selection of the study panel, the study coordinator (S.A.V.) distributed a questionnaire consisting of seven scenarios of potential rabies exposures to different species (see Table 1, Appendix 1). In six of the scenarios, the animal responsible was not available for rabies testing. Three of the exposures were unprovoked bites and three were unprovoked licks by animals. The seventh was a possible exposure to a human rabies patient. Each scenario provided an estimate of the prevalence of rabies in the involved animal species based on information from published literature as follows: skunk 25%, bat 15%, cat 1%, and dog 0.1% [3, 11, 12]. Participants were also provided reference values of actual rabies mortality following different exposures to proven rabid animals based on the following published values: superficial bite to the hand: 5%; contact with rabid saliva on a recent wound: 0.1%; contact with rabid saliva on a wound older than 24 hours: 0.0% [13]. Finally, all scenarios standardized the post-exposure course with "the wound is not washed or cleaned" and "the animal cannot be found" in order to maintain clarity and consistency across potential exposure scenarios.

Rabies - sometimes called "hydrophobia" - has its roots in antiquity. Centuries before the birth of Christ, it was recognized in both animals and man. Cases were described with amazing clinical accuracy during the lifetime of Aristotle. The name hydrophobia, meaning "fear of water," was given to it at that time because the ancient Greeks observed rabid animals' aversion to water. Actually, the truth is that they cannot drink because of throat paralysis. It is this fact which produces the classic picture of a beast with foam-flecked jaws. Saliva accumulates in the paralyzed throat and drools from the corners of the mouth, giving the impression of mad-dog foam. Certainly it isn't hard to understand why those ancient people were terror stricken by such a sight, and even thought the animal was demon-possessed. Writers of the day attributed rabies to an invasion of the body by a evil spirit.Through the years, a wall of superstition was built. The wall has never been completely torn down. Even today, many people believe that the bite of a civet cat (or "hydrophobia cat"), a small spotted skunk, invariably leads to rabies. Actually, while all skunks are susceptible to rabies, laboratory studies have proved it is wrong to assume all civet cats are rabid.

Rabies is a virus disease of the central nervous system. It can be transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal, or through the saliva of a rabid animal being introduced into a fresh scratch or similar skin break, and rarely by other routes. Saliva in contact with unbroken skin - or even on a scratch wound over 24 hours old, one where a scab has formed-usually will not require anti-rabies treatment. You should definitely see a doctor if you think the animal could be rabid.

Unvaccinated dogs and cats bitten by a known rabid animal should be destroyed immediately. If the owner is unwilling to have this done, the animal should be vaccinated and placed in strict isolation for 90 days and given booster vaccinations during the third and eighth weeks of isolation. If the animal is currently vaccinated, it should be revaccinated immediately and restrained (leashing and confinement) for 45 days.

All warm-blooded animals, including humans, are susceptible to rabies. In Texas, skunks, bats, coyotes, and foxes are the most commonly infected animals. This does not mean that wildlife eradication campaigns should be started. Wild species are highly beneficial in keeping pests under control, but it is wise to realize that they can carry rabies, and that contact with them should be avoided at all times-especially with those which are obviously sick.Domestic dogs, cats, and livestock usually acquire rabies infections from wild animals; while the numbers of rabid domestic animals are fewer, their danger is greater because of their close association with humans. 041b061a72


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